''Calvatia cyathiformis''

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Contents

Latin Name

Calvatia cyathiformis

Common Name(s)

Purple-spored puffball

Family

Agaricaceae

Fruiting Body General Description (General Characteristics)

This species is usually shaped like a white creamy blob or a ball when young and begins to develop a basal portion that is a bit narrower than the ball-like portion as it matures that creates a shape vaguely reminiscent of an inverted pear or a loaf of bread. The surface of the fungus can be fairly smooth and broken up into mosaic-like scales.

Calvatia cyathiformis 01-2.jpg when young

Kuo, Michael, Image Calvatia cyathiformis, MushroomExpert.Com, September 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-02. [2]

390px-ball2-2.jpg when mature

Cap/Hymenophore Description

Has a large cap, about 8-17 cm high and 8-20 cm wide. The skin of the cap can be 1-2 mm thick. It's white when young then becomes yellowish, then brownish and finally turns into a dull purple when mature. It has a chocolate-brown or purple-colored gleba with a smooth exoperidium. As it ages the exterior dries and cracks and the fleshy spore-bearing interior breaks away to be distributed by wind and rain. After the spores completely disperse, a soft leathery cup-shaped with a ragged upper edge remains with a sterile base lightly rooted to the ground.

Hymenophore Photo

Has no hymenophore, instead has a gleba with a smooth exoperidium

Dsc 4363calvatia ciathyfo-2.jpg

"Image Calvatia Cyathiformis." MyCoPortal Retrieved 2016-11-04. [4]

Stipe Description

No stipe present in this species

Spore Description

The spores are purple to dark purple-brown in color. Has a globose to subglobose shape with 0.5-1 µ long spines on the spore walls. The size of the spore ranges from 3.5 to 7 microns

Spores and capillitium 1000x copy.jpg

"Calvatia Cyathiformis - Fungalspores." Calvatia Cyathiformis - Fungalspores Retrieved 2016-11-04 [5]

Flesh Description

The flesh is soft and leather-like to touch. The mushroom is solid and very brittle, it will brake easily.

Img 1689-2.jpg

Other Information

This mushroom is edible, but has no distinct flavor or odor. It does absorb the flavors easily and since it is so big, it only takes one to two fruiting bodies for a dinner for two [9]. This mushroom relies on the destruction of itself for spore dispersal [13].

Distinguishing Characteristics:

C. cyathiformis is a large mushroom, growing up to 20 cm wide and 17 cm high. It also has purple spores that are expelled through the top of the cap. This mushroom starts off white, but turns purple due to the color of the spores. The mushroom starts off spherical, but the top portion becomes thicker than the bottom as it matures [6].

Calvatia cyathiformi Fry99.jpg When first fruiting

Kuo, Michael "Image 2 Calvatia Cyathiformis" MushroomExpert.com, September 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-06 [7]

Calvatiacyathiformismoremature-2.jpg Slightly more mature

"Species: Calvatia cyathiformis" hiddenforest.co.nz Retrieved 2016-111-06. [8]

Img 1686-3.jpg Fully mature

Collection Location on GGC’s Campus

This mushroom was found growing on the soil, not on trees or decaying wood.

Habitat

C. cyathiformis grows all throughout North America, except for along the west coast. They are known to grow alone in grassy areas and also in fairy rings [1]. There have been sightings in Australia [11].

Calvatia cyathiformis-dd-3780-.jpg

Wood, M & Stevens, F, "California Fungi—Calvatia cyathiformis image" A Mykoweb Page Retrieved 2016-11-06. [10]

Fruiting Season

C. cyathiformis fruits from summer to fall [6].

Historic Range

The purple-spored puffball is found mostly in North America, but has been documented in Australia as well. "C. cyathiformis" can easily be confused with "C. fragilis" because they look the same, but "C. fragilis' does not grow to be as big [14].

Cultural Information

Mushrooms have been known to have natural steroids in them. "C. cyathiformis" specifically has calvasterols A and B [12].

This page was created by

Vanessa Largo and Angelique LaFrance for BIOL 3350K WIKI assignment lab

References

1. Kuo, Michael Calvatia cyathiformis, MushroomExpert.Com, September 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-02.

2. Kuo, Michael Image Calvatia cyathiformis, MushroomExpert.Com, September 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-02.

3. "Purple-Spored Puffball (Calvatia Cyathiformis)" INaturalist.org. Retrieved 2016-11-02.

4. "Image Calvatia Cyathiformis." MyCoPortal Retrieved 2016-11-04.

5. "Calvatia Cyathiformis - Fungalspores." Calvatia Cyathiformis - Fungalspores Retrieved 2016-11-04.

6. "Rogers Mushrooms | Mushroom Pictures & Mushroom Reference." Rogers Mushrooms Retrieved 2016-11-06.

7. Kuo, Michael "Image 2 Calvatia Cyathiformis" MushroomExpert.com, September 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-06.

8. "Species: Calvatia cyathiformis" hiddenforest.co.nz Retrieved 2016-11-06.

9. Wood, M & Stevens, F "California Fungi—Calvatia cyathiformis f. fragilis" A Mykoweb Page Retrieved 2016-11-06.

10. Wood, M & Stevens, F "California Fungi—Calvatia cyathiformis image" A Mykoweb Page Retrieved 2016-11-06.

11. "Australian fungi" Australian fungi - a blog Retrieved 2016-11-06.

12. Kawahara, N, Sekita, S, Satake, M "Two steroids from Calvatia cyathiformis" Phytochemistry, March 1995. Retrieved 2016-11-06

13. Dan "Edible Puffballs in your front lawn – A Look at Calvatia Species" returntonature.us, 7 October 2010. Retrieved 2016-11-06.

14. Kuo, Michael "Calvatia fragilis" MushroomExpert.com, October, 2008. Retrieved 2016-11-06

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