Biol 3300K Task Force
Biol 3300K Course Goals
Upon completion of this course, students will:
1. Elizabeth: demonstrate knowledge of the fundamentals of microbiology including history, microscopy and staining techniques and characteristics and evolution of microorganisms.
2. Lori: demonstrate knowledge of genetics including inheritance of information, causes, consequences and uses of mutations, exchange and acquisition of genetic information in prokaryotes;
1. Demonstrate knowledge of genetic information in prokaryotes.
a. Describe the organization of the genetic material. b. Describe the structure of DNA and how it is replicated. c. Describe the structure of RNA. d. Describe the process of transcription.
2. Demonstrate knowledge of genetic causes (regulation) in prokaryotes.
a. Describe the different process of gene regulation. b. Describe protein structure. c. Describe the process of translation and protein synthesis. d. Described the different mechanisms of Global regulation and their consequences.
3. Demonstrate knowledge of what processes cause genetic mutations and the consequences of these mutations in prokaryotes.
a. Describe the different types of mutations and how the coding sequence is affected. b. Describe the consequences of mutations and how they can lead to genetic variability. c. Describe the different repair mechanisms.
4. Demonstrate knowledge of the processes involved in the exchange and acquisition of genetic information in prokaryotes.
a. Describe horizontal gene transfer and how it is used for the exchange of genetic information. i. Describe the process of conjugation and key experiments that led to its discovery. ii. Describe the process of transformation and key experiments that led to its discovery. iii. Describe the process of transduction and compare the different types. b. Know what transposable elements are, how they move, and their effect on genetic diversity. c. Know what plasmids are and how they are exchanged between bacteria.
Term List: mRNA, tRNA, nucleosome, replicon, rolling-circle, DNA polymerase, replisome, helicases, single-stranded binding proteins, DNA gyrase, promise, primosome, leading and lagging strand, Okazaki fragments, codon, reading frame, template strand, promoter, Shine-Dalgarno, polycistronic, RNA polymerase, sigma factor , Pribnow box, polyribosome, initiator codon, initiation factor, chaperones, Protein splicing, inducible, repressible, Lactose operon, attenuation, riboswitch, small RNAs, regulon, alternate sigma factor, diauxic growth, catabolite repression, quorum sensing, point mutation, mutagen, spontaneous and induced mutation, silent mutations, missense mutations, nonsense mutations, frameshift mutations, conditional mutations, Biochemical mutations, auxotrophs, prototrophs, proofreading, excision repsir, mismatch repair, recombinational repair, SOS response, exogenote, merozygote, transposase, conjugative transposons and plasmids, F factor, sex pilus
3. Lee: describe and discuss metabolism, growth, growth control and metabolic diversity in prokaryotes;
- Distinguish between a disinfectant and an antiseptic.
- Name three things that effect the efficiency of a antimicrobial agent.
- Where would UV and ionizing radiation be used as sterilizing agents?
- What is the difference between sterilization and disinfection?
- How does the MIC test evaluate the effectiveness of a compound?
- Explain how oxidative and substrate level phosphorylation work and how ATP is generated with both.
- Briefly explain how fermentation, aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration differ. Be sure to include electron acceptors, proton motive force, ATP synthesis and production .
- Distinguish between chemolithotropy and phototrophy.
- Explain the differences in a batch and continuous culture.
- Draw a growth curve and label each phase and the axes. Describe the key elements of each growth phase.
- Why is fermentation important for a cell? What are the different products of fermentation? How can they contribute to identifying an organism?
- What is the purpose of the pentose phosphate pathway and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway.
- What are the most common macro and micronutrients needed by bacteria?
- Understand the major nutritional types of microorganisms.
- How do thermophiles survive at temperatures that kill other organisms? Why are psychrophiles unable to grow at mesophile temperatures?
- Explain the difference in the fatty acid make up of psychrophile and thermophile cell membranes?
- What by-products of oxygen are toxic? How do organisms protect themselves against these products?
- Differentiate between total and viable count methods to evaluate growth and give an example for each.
4. Julie: describe the spectrum of chemotherapeutic antimicrobial activity, selective toxicity and how it leads to antibiotic resistance;
1. Define selective toxicity and describe how it affects chemotherapeutic treatment of microbial diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or protozoa.
2. Identify the contributions of Erlich, Domagk, and Fleming in the discovery and development of chemotherapeutic agents.
3. Describe the specific steps of peptidoglycan synthesis inhibited by bacitracin, vancomycin, penicillin, and cycloserine (this is actually an objective when teaching anabolism that is re-visited when covering chemotherapeutic agents).
4. Identify the three antimicrobials in Neosporin or Triple Antibiotic Ointment and name what they target in bacteria (this is a very specific objective and not absolutely necessary for every 3300 section)
5. Identify classes of and specific chemotherapeutic agents that target: 1) the cell wall, 2) the cell membrane, 3) transcription and/or replication, 4) translation (identify which target the 30S versus 50S ribosome), 5) metabolic pathways.
6. Define bacteriocidal versus bacteriostatic and narrow-spectrum versus broad-spectrum
7. Describe mechanisms by which microbes are resistant to antimicrobials
8. Describe and discuss the spread of antibiotic resistance and how it can be minimized
Term list: selective toxicity, bacteriocidal, bacteriostatic, chemotherapeutic agent, broad-spectrum, narrow-spectrum, Erlich, Domagk, Fleming, arsphenamine, sulfonamides, β-lactams aka penicillins, cephalosporins, bacitracin, vancomycin, cycloserine, isoniazid, polymyxin B, quinolones, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, aminoglycosides, neomycin, tetracycline, macrolides, erythromycin, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, nucleoside analogs, azidothymidine (AZT)