Chapter5carolinepattiejulia

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  1. Application programming interface (API)- A system of tools and resources in an operating system, enabling developers to create software applications.
  2. Application software- Is a set of one or more programs designed to permit the user to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities.
  3. Backup and restore utility- Refers to the copying and archiving of computer data so it may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.
  4. Basic input/output system (BIOS)- Is the program a personal computer’s microprocessor uses to get the computer system started after you turn it on.
  5. Boot process- a computer is to load an operating system into the computer’s main memory or random access memory (RAM).
  6. Command-driven interface- Is an interface in which users must type in commands to carry out actions.
  7. Desktop- The working surface of a desk.
  8. Device driver- Is a program that controls a particular type of device that is attached to your computer.
  9. Device manager- Is a control Panel in Microsoft Windows operating systems.
  10. Disk cleanup- Is a computer maintenance utility included in Microsoft Windows designed to free up disk space on a computer’s hard drive.
  11. Disk defragmenter- Is a utility in Microsoft Windows designed to increase access speed by rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage location, a technique called defragmentation.
  12. Error-checking- Testing for accurate transmission of data over a communications network for internally within the computer system.
  13. Extension- Is a suffix to the name of the computer file applied to indicate the encoding of its contents or usage.
  14. File allocation table (FAT)- Is a table that an operating system maintains on a hard disk that provides a map of the clusters that a file has been stored in.
  15. File compression utility- Is a software program that is used to compress or decompress files.
  16. File management- Is a type of software that manages data files in a computer system.
  17. File path- Specifies a unique location in a file system.
  18. Firmware- Permanent software programmed into a read-only memory.
  19. Graphical user interface (GUI)- A visual way of interacting with a computer using items such as windows, icons, and menus, used by most modern operating systems.
  20. Icon- A picture or symbol that appears on a monitor and is used to represent a command.
  21. Interrupt- Computer either resumes running the program it was running or begins running another program.
  22. Interrupt handler- Is a callback function in microcontroller firmware, an operating system or a device driver whose execution is triggered by the reception of an interrupt.
  23. Kernel- Is a computer program that manages I/O requests from software, and translates them into data processing instructions for the central processing unit and other electronic components of a computer.
  24. Last known good configuration- Is basically a copy of a computer’s hardware configuration and its driver’s settings.
  25. Library- Is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often to develop software.
  26. Linux- Is a Unix-like and mostly POSIX-compliant computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open-source software development and distribution.
  27. Mainframe- Are computer used primarily by corporate and governmental organizations for critical applications, bulk data processing such as census and etc.
  28. Menu-driven interface- Lists menu choices that a user can select to navigate from one place to another with a website or software program.
  29. MS-DOS- Referred to any operating system.
  30. multitasking-Solves the problem by scheduling which task may be the one running at any given time, and when another waiting task gets a turn.
  31. Multiuser/Network operating system- Is a computer operating system that is designed to primarily support workstations, personal computer and in some instances older terminals that are connected on a local area network.
  32. Operating system- the software that supports a computer's basic functions, such as scheduling tasks, executing applications, and controlling peripherals.
  33. Paging- divide (a piece of software or data) into sections, keeping the most frequently accessed in main memory and storing the rest in virtual memory.
  34. Platform- whatever pre-existing environment a piece of software is designed to run within, obeying its constraints, and making use of its facilities.
  35. Plug and play (PnP)- a standard for the connection of peripherals to personal computers, whereby a device only needs to be connected to a computer in order to be configured to work perfectly, without any action by the user.
  36. Power-on self test (POST)- is the diagnostic testing sequence that a computer's basic input/output system (or "starting program") runs to determine if the computer keyboard, random access memory, disk drives, and other hardware are working correctly.
  37. Preemptive multitasking- is task in which a computer operating system uses some criteria to decide how long to allocate to any one task before giving another task a turn to use the operating system.
  38. Real-time operating system (RTOS)- is an operating system that guarantees a certain capability within a specified time constraint. For example, an operating system might be designed to ensure that a certain object was available for a robot on an assembly line.
  39. Recycle bin- a folder where files and folders that you have deleted are stored. They have not been permanently removed from your hard drive(s), they were only "moved" to this special folder.
  40. Restore point- By creating a restore point, you can save the state of the operating system and your own data so that if future changes cause a problem, you can restore the system and your data to the way it was before the changes were made.
  41. Ribbon- is a graphical control element in the form of a set of toolbars placed on several tabs.
  42. Root directory- is the first or top-most directory in a hierarchy. It can be likened to the trunk of a tree, as the starting point where all branches originate from.
  43. Safe mode- is a troubleshooting option for Windows that starts your computer in a limited state. Only the basic files and drivers necessary to run Windows are started.
  44. Sector- a subdivision of a track on a magnetic disk or optical disc. Each sector stores a fixed amount of user-accessible data, traditionally 512 bytes for hard disk drives (HDDs) and 2048 bytes for CD-ROMs and DVD-ROMs.
  45. Server- a computer that provides data to other computers. It may serve data to systems on a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN) over the Internet.
  46. Single-user, multitasking operating system- an operating system that allows a single user to simultaneously run multiple applications on a computer. This type of operating system is found in personal desktop and laptop computers. The most popular single-user multitasking operating systems include Microsoft Windows and Macintosh.
  47. Single-user single task operating system- a single task system is developed for use with a computer or electronic device that will only run one application at a time. This type of OS is typically used on devices like wireless phones and two-way messaging devices.
  48. Source code- a text listing of commands to be compiled or assembled into an executable computer program.
  49. Spooler- Software that manages sending jobs to the printer. When an application prints a document, the formatted output is stored on disk, and the print spooler feeds the print images to the printer in the background at slower printing speeds.
  50. Swap/Page file- a file on a hard disk used to provide space for programs that have been transferred from the processor's memory.
  51. System files- any file with the system attribute turned on. Most Windows computers are configured by default not to display system files in normal file searches or in folder views.
  52. System restore- is a feature that allows the user to revert their computer's state (including system files, installed applications and system settings) to that of a previous point in time, which can be used to recover from system malfunctions or other problems.
  53. System software- is computer software designed to operate and control the computer hardware and to provide a platform for running application software. System software can be separated into two different categories, operating systems and utility software.
  54. Task manager utility- A Windows feature that provides details about programs and processes running on your computer. It also displays the most commonly used performance measures for processes.
  55. Task scheduler utility- is a component of Microsoft Windows that provides the ability to schedule the launch of programs or scripts at predefined times or after specified time intervals.
  56. Thrashing- occurs when a computer's virtual memory subsystem is in a constant state of paging, rapidly exchanging data in memory for data on disk, to the exclusion of most application-level processing.
  57. Toolbar- a strip of icons used to perform certain functions.
  58. Track- a circular path on the surface of a disk or diskette on which information is magnetically recorded and from which recorded information is read.
  59. UNIX- a widely used multiuser operating system.
  60. User interface- the means by which the user and a computer system interact, in particular the use of input devices and software.
  61. Utility program- a program for carrying out a routine function.
  62. Virtual memory- memory that appears to exist as main storage although most of it is supported by data held in secondary storage, transfer between the two being made automatically as required.
  63. Windows Explorer- Windows Explorer is a tool that allows you to browse, view, copy and delete files.

Julia Decker Patricia Juarez

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