Chapter 5 Jammal,Henry,Abd

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1. Application programming interface (API) ---an application programming interface (API) is a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications.

2. Application software---is a set of one or more programs designed to permit the user to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities.

3. Backup and restore utility---refers to the copying and archiving of computer data so it may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.

4. Basic input/output system (BIOS) ---is the program a personal computer's microprocessor uses to get the computer system started after you turn it on.

5. Boot process---This process involves loading the startup instructions from the computer's ROM, followed by loading the operating system from the current boot disk

6. Command---driven interface- is an interface that permits the user to issue requests to the system by means of explicit commands

7. Desktop---the working area of a computer screen regarded as a representation of a notional desktop and containing icons representing items such as files and a wastebasket.

8. Device driver---is a program that controls a particular type of device that is attached to your computer.

9. Device manager---is a Control Panel applet in Microsoft Windows operating systems. It allows users to view and control the hardware attached to the computer.

10. Disk cleanup---is a computer maintenance utility included in Microsoft Windows designed to free up disk space on a computer's hard drive.

11. Disk defragmenter--- is a utility in Microsoft Windows designed to increase access speed by rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage locations, a technique called fragmentation.

12. Error-checking-Testing for accurate transmission of data over a communications network or internally within the computer system.

13. Extension- an optional addition to the file

14. File allocation table (FAT)-is a table that an operating system maintains on a hard disk that provides a map of the clusters (the basic units of logical storage on a hard disk) that a file has been stored in.

15. File compression utility-application that compresses files so that they take up less space on the disk

16. File management- browser is a computer program that provides a user interface to manage files and folders.

17. File path-the container folder where the file resides

18. Firmware-the combination of a hardware device, e.g. an integrated circuit, and computer instructions and data that reside

19. Graphical user interface (GUI)- a type of interface that allowsusers to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces,

20. Icon-is an image that represents an application, a capability, or some other concept or specific entity with meaning for the user.

21. Interrupt-a signal from a device attached to a computer or from a program within the computer that causes the main program that operates the computer (the operating system) to stop and figure out what to do next.

22. Interrupt handler-also known as an interrupt service routine or ISR, is a callback function in microcontroller firmware, an operating system or a device driver, whose execution is triggered by the reception of an interrupt.

23. Kernel - is a computer program that manages I/O (input/output) requests from software, and translates them into data processing instructions

24. Last known good configuration-It's a Windows startup option that uses the most recent system settings that worked correctly

25. Library - a library is a collection of precompiled routines that a program can use.

26. Linux-an open-source operating system modelled on UNIX.

27. Mainframe-are computers used primarily by corporate and governmental organizations for critical applications, bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning and transaction processing.

28. Menu-driven interface-lists menu choices that a user can select to navigate from one place to another within a website or software program

29. MS-DOS-short for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft

30. multitasking - allowing a user to perform more than one computer task (such as the operation of an application program at a time

31. Multiuser/Network operating system - is a term commonly used to define a computer capable of allowing multiple users to connect to a network.

32. Operating system - a system of instructions for a computer to run, without a operating system, the computer will not boot or operate.

33. Paging- one of the memory management schemes by which a computer stores and retrieves data from the secondary storage for use in main memory.

34. Platform-that enables the creation of products and processes that support present or future or past development.

35. Plug and play (PnP) --- is a capability developed by Microsoft for its Windows 95 and later operating systems that gives users the ability to plug a device into a computer and have the computer recognize that the device is there.

36. Power-on self-test (POST) - the very first step that a computer does in the startup process.

37. Preemptive multitasking-is task in which a computer operating system uses some criteria to decide how long to allocate to any one task before giving another task a turn to use the operating system.

38. Real-time operating system (RTOS)-is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time application process data as it comes in, typically without buffering delays.

39. Recycle bin- program that’s deletes all programs a user chooses to delete on a computer.

40. Restore point- is a feature in Microsoft Windows that allows the user to revert their computer's state (including system files, installed applications, Windows Registry, and system settings) to that of a previous point in time, which can be used to recover from system malfunctions or other problems.

41. Ribbon- is a user interface element created by Microsoft

42. Root directory-the directory at the highest level of a hierarchy

43. Safe mode- is a troubleshooting option for Windows that starts your computer in a limited state.

44. Sector-an area or portion that is distinct from others.

45. Server-a computer or computer program that manages access to a centralized resource or service in a network

46. Single-user, multitasking operating system-This type of operating system is found in personal desktop and laptop computers. The most popular single-user multitasking operating systems include Microsoft Windows and Macintosh.

47. Single-user single task operating system-a type of operating system (OS) that is developed and intended for use on a computer or similar machine that will only have a single user at any given time.

48. Source code-a text listing of commands to be compiled or assembled into an executable computer program.

49. Spooler-software that manages sending jobs to the printer.

50. Swap/Page file- is a space on a hard disk used as the virtual memory extension of a computer's real memory (RAM).

51. System files-for organizing directories and files, generally in terms of how it is implemented in the disk operating system.

52. System restore- is a feature in Microsoft Windows that allows the user to revert their computer's state (including system files, installed applications, Windows Registry, and system settings) to that of a previous point in time, which can be used to recover from system malfunctions or other problems.

53. System software-is computer software designed to operate and control the computer hardware and to provide a platform for running application software.

54. Task manager utility-are used to review which applications and background processes are running, as well as to stop an app that is not responding.

55. Task scheduler utility- is a component of Microsoft Windows that provides the ability to schedule the launch of programs or scripts at predefined times or after specified time intervals.

56. Thrashing-is a condition in which excessive paging operations are taking place

57. Toolbar-(in a program with a graphical user interface) a strip of icons used to perform certain functions.

58. Track-follow and note the course or progress of.

59. UNIX-a widely used multiuser operating system.

60. User interface-the means by which the user and a computer system interact, in particular the use of input devices and software

61. Utility program-a program for carrying out a routine function.

62. Virtual memory-memory that appears to exist as main storage although most of it is supported by data held in secondary storage, transfer between the two being made automatically as required.

63. Windows Explorer-is a file manager application that is included with releases of the Microsoft Windows operating system from Windows 95 onwards.

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