Chapter 5 Pribeagu Massee

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Application programming interface (API)- Blocks of code for similar procedures, Prevent redundancies in software code, Make it easier for software developers

Application software-Application software feeds the CPU the instructions it needs to process data

Backup and restore utility- A backup copy protects your data in the event your hard drive fails or files are accidentally erased. Although you may not need to back up every file on your computer, you should back up the files that are most important to you and keep the backup copy in a safe location

Basic input/output system (BIOS)- ) is activated when the user powers on the CPU. (2) In the POST check, the BIOS verifies that all attached devices are in place. (3) The operating system is loaded into RAM. (4) Configuration and customization settings are checked.

Boot process- (or start-up process) to load the operating system into RAM.

Command-driven interface- A command-driven interface is one in which you enter commands to communicate with the computer system

Desktop- The desktop is the first interaction you have with the operating system and the first image you see on your monitor. As its name implies, your computer’s desktop puts at your fingertips all of the elements necessary for a productive work session. They are items that are typically found on or near the top of a traditional desk, such as files and folders.

Device driver- facilitate communication between devices attached to the computer and the OS. Device drivers translate the specialized commands of devices to commands that the OS can understand and vice versa, enabling the OS to communicate with every device in the computer system

Device manager- a feature in the operating system that lets you view and change the properties of all devices attached to your computer. Safe mode boots Windows with only the original Microsoft Windows drivers that are required to boot the computer

Disk cleanup- Disk Cleanup is a Windows utility that cleans, or removes, unnecessary files from your hard drive. These include files that have accumulated in the Recycle Bin as well as temporary files, which are files created by Windows to store data temporarily while a program is running

Disk Defragmenter- regroups related pieces of files on the hard drive, thereby allowing the OS to work more efficiently.

Error-checking- checks for lost files and fragments and physical errors on hard drive

Extension- Following naming conventions and using proper file extensions are also important aspects of file management

File allocation table (FAT)- Index of all sector numbers in a table

File compression utility- that takes out redundancies in a file (zips it) to reduce the file size

File management- Provides an organizational structure to the computer’s contents

File path- The file path starts with the drive in which the file is located and includes all folders, subfolders (if any), the file name, and the extension Firmware- part of system program

Graphical user interface (GUI)- interface is windows (with a lowercase w), the rectangular panes on your computer screen that display applications running on your system.

Icon- shortcuts to frequently used tasks) and scrollbars (bars that appear at the side or bottom of the screen that control which part of the information is displayed on the screen


Interrupt handler

Kernel- responsible for managing the processor and all other components of the computer system Last known good configuration- System Restore (system restore point)A snapshot of your entire system's settings

Library- gathers files from different locations and displays them as if they were all saved in a single folder

Linux- files use the forward slash (/) as the path separator

Mainframe- Multiuser operating system enables more than one user to access the computer at one time

Menu-driven interface- Enables user to interact with the computer

MS-DOS- a user-friendly interface like the one that was first introduced with Apple’s operating system

multitasking- opening more than one tab at once

Multiuser/Network operating system

Operating system

Paging- A technique used by virtual memory operating systems to help ensure that the data you need is available as quickly as possible.

Platform- Hardware architecture (processor) + OS

Plug and play (PnP)-is a software and hardware standard designed to facilitate the installation of new hardware in PCs by including in the OS the drivers these devices need in order to run.

Power-on self test (POST)-The BIOS checks that all attached devices are in place

Preemptive multitasking- The ability to execute more than one task at the same time

Real-time operating system (RTOS)-require no user intervention

Recycle bin-Location for deleted files and folders from the C: drive only.

Restore point- a snapshot of your entire system’s settings.

Ribbon-The ribbon is further organized into task-specific tabs with relevant commands. Using the Minimize, Maximize/Restore Down, and Close buttons, you can open, close, and resize windows.

Root directory- The top directory in a file system

Safe mode-Safe mode is a special diagnostic mode designed for troubleshooting errors.

Sector- The smallest unit that can be accessed on a disk.

Server- A computer or device on a network that manages network resources

Single-user, multitasking operating system- Current operating systems for desktops, notebooks, and netbooks

Single-user single task operating system- designed for systems with a specific purpose and response time

Source code- Program instructions in their original form.

Spooler- A computer program that sequences print jobs by temporarily storing them in a buffer and sending each to the printer when the printer is able to process it.

Swap/Page file- When more RAM space is needed, the OS swaps out from RAM the data or instructions that have not been recently used and moves them to a temporary storage area on the hard drive called the swap file.

System files- files that help run the operating system.

System restore- Rolls system settings back to a specific date before problems

System software- set of software programs that helps run the computer and coordinates instructions between application software and hardware devices

Task manager utility- check on program �that has stopped working or to exit nonresponsive programs

Task scheduler utility- Allows you to schedule tasks to run automatically at predetermined times, with no additional action on your part

Thrashing- Eventually your computer will become sluggish as it is forced to page more and more often

Toolbar- have icons and scrollbars


UNIX- a multiuser, multitask operating system used as a network operating system, primarily with mainframes, although it is also often found on PCs.

User interface- interface that aloows normal users that font know code to use a computer.

Utility program- Small applications that perform special functionsare incorporated into operating system

Virtual memory- temporary storage on the hard drive

Windows Explorer-helps you manage your files and folders by showing the location and contents of every drive, folder, and file on your computer. Creating folders is the key to organizing files because folders keep related documents together.

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