Developmental Psychology

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Contents

Overview


A scientific study of the progressive stages of human life across a period of time is known as Developmental Psychology or human Development. This segment of Psychology is concerned with describing and understanding how individuals grow and change over their lifetimes and experts in this field are called Developmental Psychologists. Developmental Psychologists are people that are dedicated to performing field research as well as clinical research through infancy, adolescence, and adulthood to gain insight on identity and personality formation.

Overview on Child Developmental Psychology Child developmental psychology is the study of why and how the children change over time. Child psychologist use three types of explanations to explain a child's behavior which are: behaviour explanations (genetic inheritances), psychological explanations (personality, their wants, needs, and motivations), and social explanations (impact of the environment has on their development). Child psychology looks at the issues, stages, and influences that a child experiences. Can look at what the child goes through when growing up and analysis and treatment of the problems that a child may face throughout their developmental. Evironmental setting, family, community and the media can all be factors that shape a child. Child psychologists can work in a private practice, hospitals, schools and for the government.

History


Some of the major questions posed by psychologists and researchers are centered on the relative contributions of genetics versus environment, the process through which development occurs, and the overall importance of early experiences versus that of later event. The notion that people “develop” is an obvious assumption. The idea of development is used extensively to give order and meaning to changes over time in children's physical, cognitive, psychosocial, and moral development. In the late nineteenth century, psychologists familiar with the evolutionary theory of Darwin began seeking description of psychological development. Someone that was prominent in this are was G. Stanley Hall. He founded The Journal of Genetic Psychology and this is generally regarded as the first US journal of developmental psychology. Also James Mark Baldwin took an interest in the development of humans but took a more scientific approach and wrote essays on imitation and consciousness. By the early to mid-twentieth century Erik Erikson and Sigmund Freud were making strong contributions to the overall view of developmental psychology.

Influential People


Erik Erikson

Erik Erikson
The theory that personality is developed in stages and peoples experiences are turning points in their development is Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development. Erikson's theory was broken down into eight different stages according to age and/or educational level. Erikson believes that our personality traits come in opposites. He also believed that ego exist from birth and that behavior is not totally defensive. He became aware of influences of culture on behavior. He determined that development is determined by the interaction of the body, mind and cultural influences. Erikson had eight stages of Development. Trust vs Mistrust- Birth to 18 months, Autonomy vs Shame- 18 months to 3 years, Initiative vs Guilt- 3 to 5 years, Industry vs Inferiority- 6 years to 12 years, Identity vs Role Confusion- 12 to 18 years, Intimacy and solidarity vs Isolation- 18 to 35 years, Generativity vs Self absorption or Stagnation- 35 to 55 or 65 years. Media:Eriksons_stages_of_development.jpg




Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud
Freud was an Austrian neurologist that focused on studying human behavior and functioning. One of his best known studies is his theory of Psychocosexual Development. Media:Psychosexual_Development_Stages.jpg Freud developed three structures of personality; Id, Ego, and Superego. Is- functions as the irrational and emotional part of the mind. Id is the want want want part of the mind, also known as the primitive mind. It contains all the basic feelings and needs. Id's one rule is the "pleasure principle."If the Id is to strong a person might seem bound up in self-gratification and uncaring to others Ego- is the rational part of the mind. The ego develops through becoming aware that you can't always get what you want. Ego is also know as the " reality principle," it relates to the real world. If the Ego is to strong a person might be extremely rational, but boring and distant. The super ego is the last part to develop in the mind. It is the moral part of the mind, this part comes mainly from the parental views and social influence. Freud is also responsible for the stages of psychosexual development. Oral Stage- Birth to 18 month- child is focused oral pleasures such as; sucking. Too much of too little gratification can result in the type of personality to have a stronger tendency to smoke, drink alcohol, over eat, or bite nails. Anal Stage- 18 months- 3 years- child is focused on eliminating feces. Anal fixation can result in the child having obsessions with cleanliness, perfection and control. Phallic Stage- pleasure zone switches to genitals. Child has a unconscious sexual desire for the opposite sex parent. Latency Stage- 6 years to Puberty- Sexual urges remains repressed ad children interact and play mostly with same sex peers. Genital Stage- Puberty on- This is the final stage of psychosexual development. Sexual urges are awakened. Sexual urges are directed to the opposite sex peers. The pleasure zone is the genitals.





Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget Piaget focused on child development and learning. Theory is based on the idea that the developing child builds cognitive structures such as; "mental maps" schemes, network concepts for understanding and responding to experiences with in the environment. Four Developmental stages Piaget is responsible for are 1) Sensorimotor Stage- Birth to 2 years- through physical interaction with environment builds a set of concepts about reality and how it works. 2) Preoperational Stage- 2 to 7 years- Child is not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations. 3) Concrete Operations- 7 to 11 years- Physical experiences accumulates child starts to conceptualize and has logical structures. 4) Formal Operations- 11-15 years- This point the child's cognitive structures are like those of an adult.







Education


Developmental Psychology Colleges in Georgia


Agnes Scott College (Decatur, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Major in Psychology


Albany State University (Albany, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Master of Education in School Counseling


Andrew College (Cuthbert, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Associate of Science in Psychology


Argosy University (Atlanta, GA)

School Accreditation: North Central Association of Schools and Colleges Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Bachelor of Arts in Psychology - Criminal Justice (online) Bachelor of Arts in Psychology - Organizational Psychology (online) Certificate in Clinical Psychology Certificate in Marriage & Family Therapy (online) Doctor of Education in Counselor Education & Supervision (online) Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology Master of Arts in Clinical Psychology Master of Arts in Community Counseling Master of Arts in Community Counseling - Marriage & Family Therapy Master of Arts in Forensic Psychology Master of Arts in Industrial Organizational Psychology (online) Master of Arts in Sport-Exercise Psychology


Armstrong Atlantic State University (Savannah, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Bachelor of Science in Psychology Bachelor of Science in Rehabilitation Science


Augusta State University (Augusta, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology M.Ed. in Counselor Education Master of Science in Psychology - Applied Experimental Master of Science in Psychology - Applied Experimental Track Master of Science in Psychology - Clinical / Counseling Track, Non-Thesis Option Master of Science in Psychology - Clinical / Counseling Track, Thesis Option Master of Science in Psychology - Clinical/Counseling Master of Science in Psychology - Experimental Track Master of Science in Psychology - General Experimental Master of Science in Psychology - General Experimental Track


Beacon University (Columbus, GA)

Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Master of Arts in Counseling


Berry College (Mount Berry, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Science in Psychology Bachelors of Arts in Psychology


Brenau University (Gainesville, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Science in Psychology Master of Science in Applied Gerontology (online) Master of Science in Clinical Counseling Psychology Master of Science in Psychology


Brewton-Parker College (Mount Vernon, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelors of Arts in Psychology


Clark Atlanta University (Atlanta, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Master of Arts in Community Counseling Master of Arts in School Counseling


Clayton State University (Morrow, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Science in Psychology Master of Science In Applied Developmental Psychology Master of Science In Clinical Psychology


Columbus State University (Columbus, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Bachelor of Science in Psychology Educational Specialist in School Counseling Masters of Science in Community Counseling


Covenant College (Lookout Mountain, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Major in Psychology - Clinical Psychology Major in Psychology - Experimental Psychology Major in Psychology - Psychology & Christian Ministries Major in Sociology - Interpersonal Counseling


Emmanuel College (Franklin Springs, GA)

School Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Bachelor of Science in Psychology


Emory University (Atlanta, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Bachelor of Arts in Psychology & Linguistics Bachelor of Arts in Psychology - Cognitive/Developmental Bachelor of Arts in Psychology - Experimental Bachelor of Arts in Psychology - Psychobiological Bachelor of Arts in Psychology - Social/Personality/Clinical Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology - Clinical Psychology Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology - Cognition and Development Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology - Neuroscience and Animal Behavior


Fort Valley State University (Fort Valley, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Bachelor of Arts in Psychology (online) Master of Science Education in School Counselor Education Master of Science in Mental Health Counseling Master of Science in Rehabilitation Counseling and Case Management


Georgia College & State University (Milledgeville, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Science in Psychology


Georgia Gwinnett College (Lawrenceville, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Science in Psychology Bachelor of Science in Psychology - Clinical/Personality Psychology Bachelor of Science in Psychology - Cognitive/Neuroscience Psychology Bachelor of Science in Psychology - Developmental/Educational Psychology Bachelor of Science in Psychology - Social/Applied Psychology


Georgia Institute of Technology-Main Campus (Atlanta, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Science in Psychology Certificate in Biopsychology Certificate in Cognitive Psychology Certificate in Engineering Psychology Certificate in Experimental Psychology Certificate in Industrial/Organizational Psychology Certificate in Social/Personality Psychology Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology - Cognition and Brain Science Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology - Cognitive Aging Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology - Engineering Psychology Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology - Industrial/Organizational Psychology Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology - Quantitative Psychology


Georgia Southern University (Statesboro, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Science in Psychology Doctor of psychology in Clinical Psychology Educational Specialist in Counselor Education Master of Education in Counselor Education Master of Education in Counselor Education - Community Counseling Master of Education in Counselor Education - School Counseling Master of Education in Counselor Education - Student Services in Higher Education Master of Science in Psychology


Georgia Southwestern State University-School of Education (Americus, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Bachelor of Science in Psychology


Georgia State University (Atlanta, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Certification in School Counseling Doctor of Philosophy in Counseling Psychology Doctor of Philosophy in Counselor Education and Practice Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Psychology Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology - Clinical Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology - Cognitive Sciences Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology - Community Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology - Developmental Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology - Neuropsychology and Behavioral Neuroscience Doctor of Philosophy in School Psychology Educational Specialist in School Counseling Educational Specialist in School Psychology Master of Arts in Psychology - Clinical Master of Arts in Psychology - Cognitive Sciences Master of Arts in Psychology - Community Master of Arts in Psychology - Developmental Master of Arts in Psychology - Neuropsychology and Behavioral Neuroscience Master of Education in Education Psychology - Educational Psychology Master of Education in School Counseling Master of Education in School Psychology Master of Sciecne in Mental Health Counseling and Educational Research Master of Science in Mental Health Counseling Master of Science in Rehabilitation Counseling


Kennesaw State University (Kennesaw, GA)

Matching Programs: Bachelor of Science in Psychology


LaGrange College (LaGrange, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Major in Psychology


Life University (Marietta, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Associate of Science in Coaching Psychology Associates in Coaching Psychology Bachelor of Science in Psychology Certificate in Coaching Psychology Major in Biopsychology


Mercer University (Macon, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Certificate in Marriage and Family Therapy Educational Specialist in School Counseling M.Div./M.S. in Community Counseling Master of Science in Counseling Master of Science in Professional Counseling


Morehouse College (Atlanta, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Bachelor of Science in Psychology Bachelor of Science in Psychology - Cognate Psychology Bachelor of Science in Psychology - Pre-Medical/Pre-Dental Psychology


North Georgia College & State University (Dahlonega, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Science in Psychology Master of Science in Community Counseling


Oglethorpe University (Atlanta, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts - Behavioral Science and Human Resource Management Bachelor of Arts in Liberal Studies - Psychology Bachelor of Science in Biopsychology Major in Psychology - Clinical Major in Psychology - Cognitive Major in Psychology - Developmental Major in Psychology - Motivational Major in Psychology - Organizational Major in Psychology - Personality Major in Psychology - Physiological Major in Psychology - Social


Paine College (Augusta, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Major in Psychology - Counseling Psychology Major in Psychology - Experimental Psychology Major in Psychology - General Psychology


Piedmont College (Demorest, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology


Reinhardt College (Waleska, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Science in Psychology


Savannah State University (Savannah, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration - Behavioral Science


Shorter College (Rome, GA)

School Accreditation: North Central Association of Schools and Colleges Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Health Science and Counseling Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Bachelor of Science in Psychology


Southern Catholic College (Dawsonville, GA)

Matching Programs: Major in Psychology


Spelman College (Atlanta, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Major in Psychology Major in Psychology - Mental Health


Thomas University (Thomasville, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Bachelor of Science in Psychology Master of Science in Community Counseling Master of Science in Rehabilitation Counseling


Toccoa Falls College (Toccoa Falls, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Major in Counseling Psychology


University of Georgia (Athens, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Science in Psychology EdD in Educational Psychology Educational Specialist in Educational Psychology Educational Specialist in Guidance and Counseling Master of Arts in Educational Psychology Master of Arts in Guidance and Counseling Master of Education in Educational Psychology Master of Education in Professional Counseling PhD in Counseling Psychology PhD in Counseling and Student Personnel Services PhD in Educational Psychology PhD in Psychology - Applied Psychology PhD in Psychology - Clinical psychology PhD in Psychology - Cognitive/Experimental Psychology PhD in Psychology - Life-Span Developmental Psychology PhD in Psychology - Neuroscience and Behavior PhD in Psychology - Social Psychology PhD in School Psychology


University of Phoenix (Dunwoody, GA)

School Accreditation: North Central Association of Schools and Colleges Matching Programs: Associate of Arts in Psychology (online) Bachelor of Science in Psychology (online) Doctor of Philosophy in Industrial/Organizational Psychology (online) Master of Science In Psychology (online)


University of West Georgia (Carrollton, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Education Specialist in Guidance and Counseling - Community Counseling Education Specialist in Guidance and Counseling - School Counseling Master of Arts in Psychology Master of Education in Guidance and Counseling - Community Counseling Master of Education in Guidance and Counseling - School Counseling


Valdosta State University (Valdosta, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Bachelor of Science in Psychology Educational Specialist in School Counseling Educational Specialist in School Psychology Master of Education in School Counseling Master of Science in Clinical Psychology Master of Science in Clinical Psychology - Industrial Psychology Master of Science in Mariage and Family Therapy


Wesleyan College (Macon, GA)

School Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Matching Programs: Major in Psychology

Developmental Psych from Infancy


Infancy

Infant developmental psychology focuses on the first two years of an individual’s life. Some might consider this the most crucial years since babies grow so rapidly and so many things can happen such as neglect which could be very damaging in this time period. Any types of changes during this period of growth could affect cognitive growth, linguistic acquisitions and social and emotional abilities as well as motor skill development. Something as simple as a child learns to suck so that he can eat, starts the first process of linking motor skills with a learning ability. Jean Piaget was one of the first researchers to connect cognitive growth and motor development jointly.

Early Childhood

Also referred to as “Pre-school age”. This is the age that children tend to explore their surroundings. After being so restrained as infants, they suddenly feel a sense of freedom. They have impulses for pursuing adventure, creativity and self expression all with the responsibility of development and growth. At this age children start to develop self esteem, positive or negative based upon how much the child is allowed to do on his own. It is at these tender years that if the child is unable to explore just a little on his own, he can become dependent on others to make decisions for him throughout life. This is familiar with Erik Erikson’s theory where he felt that each stage of development was focused on overcoming a conflict. He believed that success or failure in dealing with conflicts can impact overall functioning.

School Age

Also referred to as Latency ages 6-12. During this stage we see a sense of intelligence developing by accomplishing and becoming acquired with different skills and task such as logical thought process as well as systematic manipulation of symbols. Here is where children’s minds start to understand that actions are reversible and come with consequences and knowing this, egocentric thought dissolves. They learn how to make things and how things work and are rewarded for their efforts. This type of reward makes the children feel competent however, a lack of feedback or reward can make the child feel inferior.

Adolescent

This is the last step before becoming an adult. This is when adolescents start to think about their future as far as what career path they want to take, having a family and just making their own decisions for what’s going to work best for them. It is at this age they stray from their parents a little more in search of their own personal and social identity. Discovering who they are at these times helps them to become a better judge of moral character. At this age they don’t need constant supervision; however they will always need guidance. During this stage is a great time to be around positive influences. This is the last stage before adulthood so therefore a very crucial time period in ones life. Age range from 12-18 yrs. old.

Adulthood

This is the period when one starts building intimate relationships, whether it’s strong and lasting friendships or significant other relationships. At this point all of the other stages that the individual has been through plays a significant part in how these relationships are developed. If one has some emotional turmoil or trust issues in any of the previous stages it may be extremely hard to open up to it at this point. If that is the case, the individual will experience a sense of alienation, isolation and lack the ability to depend on others. However, if the individual experienced none of these issues in the past, then building these intimate relationships won’t be any harder than the normal heartaches that comes with the territory.

Middle Age

Middle age typically is from 40-60 yrs. old however, in my opinion I think the 40 yrs olds now a days are much younger than the 40 yr old from 20-30 yrs ago. Generally during this period of life there is a lot of mixed emotions going on as well as significant physical changes. Most people at this age spend their time contributing to their grandchildren’s growth or someone that is similar to a grandchild. This helps them feel important again as opposed to feeling like they do not have a purpose any more since they gotten older. Woman experience menopause where their monthly cycle no longer comes and men experience Andropause which is a hormone fluctuation with psychological and physical effects. Although this does affect their sperm count, men are still able to produce well after middle age unlike woman.

Old Age

From age 60 on up is considered old age. During this period people reflect on how they have lived their lives either to the fullest or if not at all. The latter can cause for a much quicker death than necessary. Once we step in to the old age stage physically our bodies experience a huge decline in muscle strength, stamina, reaction time. Mentally we become at risk for Dementia and or Alzheimer’s disease. There are certain risk factors outside of just being old that put you at greater risk for being diagnosed with these diseases. It has been said that intellect decreases with old age however it has not been proven as of yet. What has been believed is that crystallized intelligence (is the ability to use skills, knowledge, and experience. It should not be equated with memory or knowledge, but it does rely on accessing information from long-term memory) increases with old age while fluid intelligent (is the capacity to think logically and solve problems in novel situations, independent of acquired knowledge. It is the ability to analyze novel problems, identify patterns and relationships that underpin these problems and the extrapolation of these using logic) declines.


Careers


How competitive is it to get a job in Developmental Psychology? Most jobs in the field of psychology require at minimum a Bachelors degree. And others require a Masters degree. Here is a list of common careers in the developmental psychology field:

Bachelor’s Degree Required:
Psychology Assistant – Perform a variety of duties pertaining to the testing of hospital patients and people in outpatient care.
Research Coordinator – Administer and score tests for ongoing research projects in hospitals or universities.


Master's Degree Required:
Coordinator/Specialist/Clinician/Supervisor – Complete assessments and treatments for children, adolescents, or adults. Positions in residential or day treatments centers and organizations specializing in child and family services, chronic mental and emotional illnesses, substance abuse, etc.
Educational Diagnostician/School Psychologist - Administer and interpret psychoeducational or developmental tests for students with learning, developmental and/or emotional disabilities. Provide information on child development issues to school personnel and parents. Provide recommendations for program development and student placement. Make recommendations for the intellectual, adaptive, academic, social, and emotional development of children. Usually a master's or PhD is required.
Nonprofit Psychologist/Therapist – Perform developmental and psychological evaluations family informational meetings, quality assurance and training. May work with infants and toddlers with disabilities to ensure that they receive early interventions. Usually a master's or


PhD is required.
Professor – Teach undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral-level courses in developmental psychology, and establish a program of empirical research. Usually a PhD required.
Associate to a Psychologist - Provide a number of psychological services, including psychometric evaluations, data collection and analysis. Usually a masters degree is required. </br>

References


Cliffs Notes - Issues in Developmental Psychology http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Issues-in-Developmental-Psychology.topicArticleId-26831,articleId-26750.html
Erikson's theory of Psychosocial Development http://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/psychosocial.htm
Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development http://www.victorianweb.org/science/freud/develop.html
What Is Developmental Psychology? http://degreedirectory.org/articles/What_is_Developmental_Psychology.html

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