FA18-ITEC1001-05

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Contents

Course Information

  • Course Title: Introduction to Computing
  • Meeting Time: 2:00 pm to 3:45 pm MW
  • Classroom: A-1930
  • Textbook: File: Connect Master - Investigating Technology by Tedmon/Wilhelm, 1st edition
  • Instructor: Dr. Kopinski Sean

Course Materials

Milestones in Computing

1940s

Milestone of Computer History: The Calculator

In 1941, Bell Telephone Laboratories completed this calculator, designed by scientist George Stibitz. Stibitz first displayed the CNC (The Complex Number Calculator) at an American Mathematical Society conference held at Dartmouth College. Stibitz amazed every spectator who was watching by performing calculations remotely on the CNC which was located in New York, using a teletype terminal connected to new York via special telephone lines. This was the first ever recorded example of remote access computing.

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Research Reference

Invention of Transistors

The Transistors became successful in the year 1947, accomplished by William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain of the Bell Telephone Laboratories in New Jersey. Transistors replaced the vacuum tubes which was bulky and power consuming. Transistors are the building block of all modern electronic devices which act as switch that amplify electric currents. Millions of these transistors are used together to form an integrated circuit which in turn manage sophisticated functions.

The First Electronic Computer

in 1942, John Vincent Atanasoff and his assistant created the first electronic computer called the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC). They both worked on it from 1939-1942 before they abandoned the project due to World War II. It was completely functional and was the first to use capacitors for storage. Atanasoff and Berry created the computer to solve systems of linear algebraic equations because the problems were very challenging and time-consuming.

The ABC computer

Research Reference

Evolution: Vacuum Tubes to Transistors

Transistor.png



Research Reference

1950s

September 19,1950 Hideo Yamachito and his team invented the first electronic computer in Japan. It was used for storing and using numerical data. During the second World War production was hindered drastically. The users didn't have any "feeling of waiting" while the computations were being calculated. This was a big deal. Yamachito's machine was called "Statistical Machine of Yamashita Type," and it opened the door for many more computers because now inventors knew it could be done!

Yamashita.gif 1stcomputer.jpeg

http://museum.ipsj.or.jp/en/pioneer/h-yama.html


February, 1951 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Researcher Doug Ross writes a memorandum calling for the use of a Flexowriter (electrically controlled typewriter) as a low cost alternative to the oft-used punch cards or paper tape of the current day to input directives into MIT computers. Five months later, an experiment performed on the MIT Whirlwind computer proved successful, with the cost-effective alternative acting as a precursor to modern day keyboard input systems.

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Research Reference

1960s

The PDP-1 was the first computer in Digital Equipment Corporation's successful 14-members of PDP series. It's famous for being the computer most important in the creation of hacker culture T MIT, BBN, and elsewhere. PDP-1 was also the hardware for playing history's first game on a minicomputer "Steve Russell's Spacewar"

1970s

Introduction of RAM

In 1970, Intel released a 1103 chip which was the first DRAM (Dynamic Random-Access Memory). This was the first commercially released DRAM and began to replace "Core Memory" as it was smaller and less expensive.

Laser Printer

The first laser printer was created by a physicist named Gary Starkweather from Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in 1971. Starkweather came to the realization that there were more methods of creating images than previously thought. This invention simply made writing and printing images easier by using lasers.

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Research Reference

1975

The first microcomputer

The first microcomputer, the Altair, is introduced.The Altair was the world's first microcomputer which used the new Intel 8080 processor.It was sold by MITS (Model Instrumentation Telemetry Systems) a small company in Albuquerque, New Mexico by mail order.Ed Roberts had fallen in to great debet so his last attempt to save his company was to sell a complete computer in kit form, based on the new Intel 8080.The name Altair,which was the name of a star in the popular tv series Star Trek, was suggested by his daughter.Roberts was able to offer his kit for $ 397 .In just one day his company sold 200 computers over the phone.Ed Roberts had no idea what impact his computer kit would have on the future of the world.

Altair 8080.jpg editor:--Jennifer Escamilla Portillo 15:36, 24 September 2018 (EDT) Research reference[2]

1980s

1980 Enquire

In 1980, a computer scientist named Tim Berners-Lee created Enquire. It was created at the CERN physics laboratory. The Enquire uses hyperlinks to categorize links for computers and people to view. Berners-Lee didn't know hypertext worked so it became a independent revelation. Then later he creates the WWW or World Wide Web.

1984: Apple first home computer: Macintosh

Apple created a computer that would appeal to the home market. This included a new interface that had real items on the users screen instead of using text commands that would open programs instead the user could click on the items on screen to open that program. They also had a program where the buyer with a credit card could take it home for 24 hours and try the macintosh out, but most retailers didn't like this program as most of the computers returned in bad conditions that left the unit unsalable thus apple and the retailer to lose money. THe macintosh also came with built in programs that would teach others how to program with the macintosh and make programs that would work with their home system

Applecomputer.jpg

--Godfrey Carson 15:20, 24 September 2018 (EDT) Godfrey Carson

1990s

The Webcam

The Webcam was essentially created in 1991. It was created by a group of scientist at Cambridge University. The scientist actually invited the webcam so that they could monitor the levels of their coffee pots from their desks. However, now the webcam is being used for video chatting across the web. The webcam became more widespread in 2003 when companies like Apple and Microsoft began selling/ promoting them. As of 2011, we use webcams for facetime on our smartphones.

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The History of the Webcam

1993

The Firewall

Check Point Software Technologies, founded in 1993, is said to be the inventor of the modern stateful firewall that still used today. Check Point's network firewall ushered in an entire market of networking tools and appliances that focus solely on the protection and integrity of data as it flows across trusted and untrusted networks. Mikayla Ganues

1999

Wifi

Wi-fi stands for Wireless Fidelity. It typically works with a router that is connected with the internet. From there the router helps transmit frequencies that carry data back and forth from the internet and the adapter in the device you use.

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[[3]]

--Uniqwa Forbes 15:44, 24 September 2018 (EDT)Uniqwa Forbes

1997

Advanced Graphics

Advanced Graphics Port or AGP designed for Video cards. Designed by Intel was released in August 1997. --Kristin Gardner 15:41, 24 September 2018 (EDT)Kristin Gardner Reference

Uniqwa3.png

[[4]]

--Uniqwa Forbes 15:42, 24 September 2018 (EDT)Uniqwa Forbes

2000s

2000: USB Flash Drive

Flash Drive

In the year 2000, USB Flash drives were introduced. They are also referred to as jump drives or memory sticks. These inventions were very innovative due to its small encasement and its capacity to store memory and transfer them through different devices. These devices are very efficient. They are fast and can have great amounts of data capacity to store media, files, and data. The advantage to this type of memory system, as opposed to floppy disks, was that they did not get easily scratched or did not get magnetic erasure. Once the flash drive was created, computers started to add USB ports to permit the use of such a small and convenient device.

Reference: History of the Flash Drive

--Karen Estrada 15:45, 24 Septmeber 2018 (EDT)

2009: Intel's Nehalem Processor

Intel i5 Nehalem Processor

In September 2009, Intel released their new generation of CPU's. These devices were referred to as the Nehalem processor, they were released to outperform the Core and Core 2 processors. These Nehalem processors were released as the i3, i5, and i7. The number referred to either low level, mid level, or high level processing power. The i5 become the most popular of the processors due to its middle of the line price point and technical ability.

--Matthew Pepe 15:13, 24 September 2018 (EDT)

2010s

2012

The Age of Big Data

As time goes on and technology advances, there needs to be a place where all and any information can be stored, processed, and retrieved. In 2012, there came a development called Big Data. Data nowadays is growing exponentially, with more data now than ever before. With new streams of data, and data doubling almost every two years, this influx of data will be overwhelming. With the Age of Big Data coming ever nearer, it can help the world to be able to utilize and store data more efficiently and quickly.

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Reference

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