Watch this video on metacognition by Dr. Stephen Heppell, a college professor, from Bournemouth University (UK). Stephen Heppell's video on metacognition
What is Metacognition
Metacognition is knowing about knowing in which one takes a general view of learning and elaborators on that notion. In metacognition, there is an understanding of how knowledge coincides together with other information as stated by Taylor (Taylor, 1999). It is broken down into three key areas of knowledge: declarative, procedural, and conditional.
Three Types of Knowledge
An overview of what we already know.
Declarative knowledge is defined as the knowledge already gathered on a set topic. Within learning the "declarative" view is collect on rules and regulations that are clearly defined towards the learner. In Krysztof Apt's Towards a Theory of Declarative Knowledge, declarative procedures are model theory based off of techniques and facts to promote learning (Apt, 1988). Declarative knowledge could also be described in another based on the rationalization of a human mind. According to Timon ten Berge's Procedural and Declarative Knowledge: An Evolutionary Perspective, "it is the part of the brain makes complex systems emerge from simple systems through mechanisms of change and mutation" (Berge, 1999, p. 606). What Berge is saying is that declarative knowledge allows learners to create connections to learning to other parts of learning.Through declarative knowledge, a student can gather more understanding and relate it to procedure or collective knowledge.
What creates knowledge
Knowledge and the process of learning happen in many ways and are not used in the same way. Like all reasons of logic, declarative knowledge is based off the scientific method with a process of science and math in order to understand the concepts. Declarative knowledge uses that knowledge to relate to complex disciplines that focus on these fact based procedures. According to Paul Eggen's Exploring Teaching and Learning, to fully understand the knowledge it must be molded into schemas, "cognitive constructs that organize information into meaningful systems on long-term memory" (Weisberg, 2010, p. 104). This states that it is through the use of all three of the cognitive knowledges that metacognition is created.
According Eggen, procedure knowledge is based on how to perform tasks (Weisberg, 2010, p. 104). In learning, knowledge cannot be fully achieved until it can be properly utilized in a learning context. The main deference between procedural knowledge from declarative and conditional knowledge is job orientation that is associated with procedural knowledge. According to Daniel Willingham's On the Development of Procedural Knowledge, “[p]rocedural memory is thought to support the acquisition and retention of skilled performance and is indexed by tasks in which memory ...changes in performance as a result of prior experiences” (Willingham, 1989, p. 1047). This means that procedural knowledge is the most developing of the three knowledges within metacognition for its hands on experiences.
The easiest example of procedural knowledge deals with formulating a science experiment in which it is based off a set of detailed instructions that correspond to an objective. Procedural knowledge begins with focus on sequences that deal with task oriented assignments and relates them to memory. According to Pawel Lewicki's Unconscious Acquisition of Complex Procedural Knowledge, specific procedural knowledge can be acquired without being able to articulate what has been learned (Lewicki, 1987, p. 523). This means that learning can begin taking place without the child's involvement in the activity. This relates to sensory processing memory that records information for further use.
Here is gravity being displayed as a learning tool and being perceived by an individual.
Conditional Knowledge is to understand when something happens under set guidelines. Through the process of action, as Eggen describes, there is a set of outcomes that take place at certain intervals (Weisberg, 2010, p. 104). Conditional knowledge requires an understanding of declarative and procedural knowledge in order to better understand the way in how, why, and when it works to create metacognition. According to Thomas Eiter's Default Reasoning from Conditional Knowledge Bases: Complexity and Tractable Cases, [a] conditional knowledge base consists of a collection of strict statements in classical logic and a collection of [non-questionable] rules (Eiter, 2000, p.169). This believes that through conditional knowledge, the brain is understanding the mechanics of learning and focused on harnessing the minor details of processing.
Piaget starting in 1926, developed the theory that children learn through a process similar to trial and error. This is to say that knowledge is not in a sense gained through the brain but actions that relate concept of understanding.
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Apt, Krzysztof. R., Howard A. Blair, & Adrian Walker (1988). Towards a Theory of Declarative Knowledge. Foundations of Deductive Databases, 89-148.
Berge, Timon. Ten (1999). Procedural and Declarative Knowledge An Evolutionary Perspective. Theory & Psychology. 9. 605-626.
Eiter, Thomas, & Lukasiewicz, Thomas (2000). Default Reasoning from Conditional Knowledge Bases: Complexity and Tractable Cases. Artificial Intelligenence. 2. 169-241.
Lewichi, Pawel, Maria Czyzewska, & Hunter Hoffman (1987). Unconscious Acquisition of Complex Procedural Knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 4. 523-530.
Piaget, Jean (1997). The Moral Judgment of the Child. Simon & Schuster. 62-78.
Taylor, S. (1999). Better learning through better thinking: Developing students’ metacognitive abilities. Journal of College Reading and Learning. 30(1). 34ff. Retrieved March 20, 2011, from Expanded Academic Index ASAP.
Willingham, Daniel. B., Mary J. Nissen, & Peter Bullemer (1989).On the Development of Procedural Knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 6. 1047-1060.