Pinus enchinata (Spring 2015)
Southern pine, Yellow pine, Spruce pine, Rosemary pine, Old field pine.
Plant Description (Height/Habit/General Characteristics)
The shortleaf pine is a needled evergreen tree, 80-100 feet in height, 2-3 feet in diameter It is characterized by a long, clear symmetrical unbuttered bole, a small, narrow, pyramidal crown, and a very large taproot. This pine has unusual regenerative capabilities during early juvenile development. When the original stem of a seedling or sapling has been destroyed, sprouts arise from the root collar that are capable of growing to maturity.
Species is monoecious; males cylindrical, red to yellow, in clumps at ends of twigs; females light green to red and armed.
- 7 to 11 cm long
- 2 (occasionally 3) needles per fascicle
- dark bluish-green to yellowish-green
- acicular, slender, flexible
- persist 2 to 5 years
- fascicle sheath 3 to 6 mm
P.enchinata generally does not bear seeds until about 20 years of age, but both male and female flowers have been reported on 5-year-old trees As the cones dry, the bracts open, allowing the winged seeds to fall out. Most seeds fall fairly close to the tree from which they originate, but in varying patterns. About 70 percent of the seeds fall within a month after maturity and 90 percent within 2 months.
- 4 to 8 mm long
- dark brown
- wings 8 to 12 mm long; tan to purplish
Pine Cone Description
Male cones - occur in clusters at base of new shoots of branches in lower crown
- 2 to 3 cm long at maturity
- green to yellow, turning reddish-purple
- mature and release pollen in March and April
Female cones - occur singly in clusters of 2 to 4 on stems below new shoots
- 1 to 4 cm long at time of pollination
- green or red to purple at time of pollination
- 4 to 6 cm long at maturity
- dull to light brown
- mature and release seed September through October of second season persist on branch for several years
- young bark rough; dark gray to black
- mature bark furrowed into irregular flat, scaly plates
- 2 to 3 cm thick
- reddish or yellowish-brown to dark brown in color
- small resin pores occasionally dotted along scaly plates
- irregularly shaped plates/light cinnamon-red scales
Needles usually in clusters of twos; cones tend to point backwards on the twigs; sprouts readily from the stump of young trees; bark broken into plates which peel off in irregular scales. Dark bluish-green needles (3-5" long) appear in bundles of two
Collection Location on GGC’s Campus
Found on the north from building B.
Location of P. enchinatas on GGC's Campus
P. enchinata has the widest range of any pine in the southeastern United States. It grows in 22 States, from southeastern New York and New Jersey west to Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, Kentucky, southwestern Illinois, and southern Missouri; south to eastern Oklahoma and eastern Texas; and east to northern Florida and northeast through the Atlantic Coast States to Delaware. Prefers well drained light sandy or gravelly clay soil, can withstand lower temperatures than any other important southern pine.
Pinus enchinata is native in United States. Specifically from eastern and southeastern USA; occurring across 22 states from New York to eastern Texas.
The turpentine obtained from the resin is antiseptic. It is remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complains and is used both internally and a ub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils.
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