Specimen 406: Irina Cedeno & Mijeong Myung

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Location of collection: GGC-1

Date of collection: November 2012

Shannon-Wiener Index of Biodiversity: 2.82522

Photo: 406

IMG 0172.JPG

Distinguishing morphological features of Order:

Wings:

- 4 membranous, forewings little longer than hind wings

- roof-like over body at rest.

-Fore wings have heavy covering of hairs and both hind wings and fore wings are mottled colors

Mouthparts:

- have large chewing palp with well developed labial and maxillary palls

-non-functioning in some adults

Eyes:

- compound and simple eyes

Body:

-hairy wings, held in inverted V over body - mottled colors; moth-like appearance

Tarsi:

-5 segmented

Cerci:

-absent

Sub-order ? Family ? After sequencing, genus and species ?

Suborder:Amphiesmenoptera

Family:Limnephilidae

Geographical Distribution:

They are worldwide and concentrated in warm weather than cold weather

Life cycle:

eggs--> free living larvae --> cast making larvae--> pupa one change --> pupa two change--> Adult

Adult caddisflies are short lived and spend most of their time mating or laying eggs. Females lay eggs on the edge of the water or by females dipping their abdomen into the surface of the water. Caddisfly larvae develop through four stages (instars) over several months or even a year. Pupation is almost always aquatic. There is usually one generation per year.

Sexual dimorphism:

Females were almost always larger than males. Body size variation among genera was greater than variance among species.

What it eats:Larval/nymphal stage Adult stage

Most of the caddisflies are herbivorous--that is, they eat decaying plant tissue and algae. Their favorite algae is diatoms, which they scrape off of rocks. Some of them, though, are predacious: they eat other animals.dults do not feed and have vestigial mouth parts; larval stages have chewing mouthparts. Immatures are found in water, usually in flowing water. Larvae are scavengers, herbivores or predaceous. They can spin silk and use it to form nets to strain material from the water to eat or to form cases in which to hide. The type of case or use of silk for a web depends on the species. Pupal cases are often attached to objects. Adults generally fly quickly from the water. Mating takes place on the ground or vegetation. Adults are commonly found near lights at night or on foliage near water.

Habitat: Larval/nymphal stage Adult stage

Caddisfly larvae are most diverse in cool, flowing water, but have invaded a wide range of habitats. They are known to construct cases out of silk and various other materials, for shelter. Most caddisfly larvae can be found in benthic habitats in temperate lakes, streams, and ponds. They can tolerate low oxygen concentrations. Habitats can include streams, both cool and warm, lakes, marshes, and ponds. Each species of caddisfly has larvae that are adapted to specific water temperatures and speeds, mineral and pollutant concentrations, and sunlight exposure. Due to the specific habitat preferences of different species, many species can co-exist in a single stream or river. Larvae can construct cases out of silk woven with sand grains, fragments of wood, and other materials from their surroundings. The silk is produced by the larvae through a special gland called the 'labium'. Adult caddisflies are terrestrial. They tend to be most active at night, hiding in cool, moist habitats (such as riparian vegetation) during daytime.

Ecological Importance: Larval/nymphal stage Adult stage

They are ecologically important because they feed on debris, cleaning out the freshwater systems in which they live.

Economic/agricultural/human health importance: Larval/nymphal stage Adult stage

Some South American native peoples use larval cases as earrings and as beads for necklaces. Beginning in the 1980s, the visual artist Hubert Duprat utilized caddisflies to create unique sculptural forms. He first removed larvae from their natural habitat, and then he provided the larvae with different colored pebbles, sand, or ground up seashells or glass materials. The caddisflies used these mateā€¦ Also, they are an important food source for fish, and they are often used as bait by fishermen.

PCR product: gel picture?


Sequence data: Attained a single band but no usable sequence

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